Pathology and Microbiology
- Nearly 2000 germplasm accessions comprising of core and/or mini-core collections including wild species of different crops were procured and screened under natural field conditions. Promising accessions showing resistance or moderately resistance/tolerance response against biotic stresses have been identified.
- Pathogen variability analysis of brown rust of wheat (Puccinia triticina)in Chhattisgarh revealed that the pathotype 121R60-1 (77-9) virulent on Lr1, Lr3, Lr10, Lr11, Lr12, Lr13, Lr14a, Lr14b, Lr14ab, Lr15, Lr16, Lr17a, Lr17b, Lr18, Lr20, Lr21, Lr22a, Lr22b, Lr23, Lr26,Lr27+31, Lr30, Lr33, Lr34, Lr35, Lr36, Lr37, Lr38, Lr44, Lr46, Lr48, Lr49 was the most predominant whereas pathotypes 21R55 (104-2) and 121R63-1 (77-5) were identified in a few samples. Sampleswere analysedat ICAR-IIWBR Regional Station, Flowerdale, Shimla (H.P.).
- Sixteen bacteriophages were isolated from field water and soil samples showing effectiveness against Xanthomonas oryzaepv. oryzae(Xoo), the bacterial blight pathogen of rice. Phage efficacy evaluation showed that it kills more than 90% bacteria (Xoo) within 24 hours after co-infection/ co-seeded bacteria.
- A total of 642, 464 and 432 serum samples of cattle and buffaloes from different districts of Chhattisgarh were tested by i-ELISA for presence of antibodies for reproductive biotic stresses. The overall seroprevalence for brucellosis, leptospirosis and IBR was found to be 11.06%, 47.6% and 63.66%, respectively, in bovine of Chhattisgarh.
- Gene specific PCR studies revealed that out of 458 blood samples, 65(14.2%), 94(20.5%) and 122 (26.6%) were positive for brucellosis, leptospirosis and IBR. Four isolates of Brucellaabortus were isolatedfrom bloodand clinical samples and were confirmed by bcsp31 gene PCR.
- Overall prevalence of Hemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) in cattle and buffaloes in Chhattisgarh was recorded to be 44%. Morbidity rate and mortality rate were recorded to be 13.8% and 7.3%, respectively.
- The predominant bacterial isolates associated were Pasteurella multocida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. The emerging pathogens causing bovine pneumonia identified were Leclerciaadecarboxylata, Stenotrophononasmaltophila and Staphylococcus sciuri. Multi-drug resistance (MDR) was seen in 90% of the E. coli tested. MDR was also identified in K. pneumoniae, E. hormaechei, E. cloacae, P. putida. P. multocida and L. adecarboxylata isolates.
- Studies on abundance of bacterial pathogens in ticks collected from bovinesshowed that pathogens like Coxciella, Borellia, Acinobacter, Corynebacteria, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas species were resident in ectoparasitic ticks.